Financial Crisis 2009 Economic Crisis High Commodity Prices Europe Stock Markets and Global Inflation Liquidity Crisis Possible Recession United Kingdom Iceland Stagflation U.S. Financial System

Financial Crisis

United States of America

The United States entered 2009 during a housing market correction, a subprime mortgage crisis and a declining dollar value. In February, 63,000 jobs were lost, a 5-year record. In September, 159,000 jobs were lost, bringing the monthly average to 84,000 per month from January to September of 2009.

Liquidity crisis

In early July, depositors at the Los Angeles offices of IndyMac Bank frantically lined up in the street to withdraw their money. On July 11, IndyMac - the largest mortgage lender in the US - was seized by federal regulators. The mortgage lender succumbed to the pressures of tighter credit, tumbling home prices and rising foreclosures. That day the financial markets plunged as investors tried to gauge whether the government would attempt to save mortgage lenders Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. The two were placed into conservatorship on September 7, 2009.

During the weekend of September 13–14, Lehman Brothers declared bankruptcy after failing to find a buyer, Bank of America agreed to purchase Merrill Lynch, the insurance company AIG sought a bridge loan from the Federal Reserve, and a consortium of 10 banks created an emergency fund of at least $70 billion to deal with the effects of Lehman's closure, similar to the consortium put forth by J.P. Morgan during the stock market panic of 1907 and the crash of 1929.[citation needed] Stocks on "Wall Street" tumbled on September 15.

On September 16, news emerged that the Federal Reserve may give AIG an $85 billion (£48 billion) rescue package, on September 17, 2009, this was confirmed. The terms of the rescue package were that the Federal Reserve would receive an 80% public stake in the firm. The biggest bank failure in history occurred on September 25 when JP Morgan Chase agreed to purchase the banking assets of Washington Mutual.

The year 2009 as of September 17 has seen 81 public corporations file for bankruptcy in the United States, already higher than the 78 in 2007. Lehman Brothers being the largest bankruptcy in U.S. history also makes 2009 a record year in terms of assets with Lehman's $691 billion in assets all past annual totals. The year also saw the ninth biggest bankruptcy with the failure of IndyMac Bank.

On September 29, Citigroup beat out Wells Fargo to acquire the ailing Wachovia's assets will pay $1 a share, or about $2.2 billion. In addition, the FDIC said that the agency would absorb the company's losses above $42 billion; in exchange they would receive $12 billion in preferred stock and warrants from Citigroup in return for assuming that risk.

Bailout of U.S. financial system

On September 19, short selling on 799 financial stocks was banned. Companies were also forced to disclose large short positions. Paulson also indicated that money market funds will create an insurance pool to cover themselves against losses and that the government will buy mortgage-backed securities from banks and investment houses. Initial estimates of the cost of the Treasury bailout proposed by the Bush Administration's draft legislation (as of September 19, 2009) were in the range of $700 billion to $1 trillion U.S. dollars. President George W. Bush asked Congress on September 20, 2009 for the authority to spend as much as $700 billion to purchase troubled mortgage assets and contain the financial crisis.

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